End of May Update

Just waiting for the Tinc tank to fill up with moss, and wishing the Veradero tank didn’t grow so fast! The Azureus are fattening up nicely. They were a little on the thin side when I got them, but they have a big appetite and are putting on weight.


The moss is starting to take off, but it seems pretty slow anyhow. I’m probably going to re-landscape a bit and move some of the fern moss to a different tank, and give some of the tropical moss (in the picture below) more room to fill in on the floor. I love the fern moss, but it seems a bit difficult for the frogs to maneuver over.


This vine has quickly become one of my favorite plants! As much as I like the rainbow Selaganella, that corner needed a little more depth, and this vine is perfect. I believe it is Cissus amazonica.


Here’s a full shot of the Tinc tank. I temporarily have the young frogs growing up together in here, until I get a new tank built for the Matecho pair. Several new plants have been added, including a small philodendron (dead center) and Ficus sp. “Panama” (just left of the waterfall) from glassboxtropicals.com. Some tiny begonias have started to sprout from leaf cuttings tucked around the edges, so the next shot may have a bit more foliage. The jars in front contain a bunch of plant cuttings that are rooting or waiting for the next tank.


The Varedaro are happy in their tank, and fattening up as well. Judging on body type, it looks like I may have 2 males and 3 females. So far, I can only confirm one male, but I’m keeping an eye out to try to confirm a second. I plan on splitting the group up soon to help determine the genders, and give the pairs space for when they start breeding.

veradero-A-May-31-2014 veradero-B-May-31-2014

New Tinctorius

I got new frogs last weekend at the reptile show in Renton Washington. I decided to go for something pretty simple and got a few new Tinctorius. I bought two Azureus and one Matecho, but only because they only had one! I probably would have bought several if they’d been available.

The Azureus are settling into the 40 gallon tank nicely. These guys climb a lot, so they’re exploring every inch of this tank. I may have to secure some things a little better to prevent the frogs from dislodging the plants, but so far so good.

tinctorius azureus

Action shot! You can even see the springtails in his mouth!

I decided to put the new Tinctorius in the 40 gallon tank because the water feature is a bit too deep for the Varadero. There are too many ways for such tiny frogs to get in trouble. The new Tinctorius are big enough to manage the water without issue, and too big to squeeze into some of the tiny holes that concerned me with the Varadero.

tinctorius azureus

I’ve seen a lot of belly shots, but what I really liked about this shot is the toes. You can kinda see through the little knuckles where the bones are a bit translucent. It’s amazing how tiny their ‘fingers’ are. Plus, those colors. I know Azureus are pretty common, but there’s a good reason they remain so popular. Just look at that blue!

tinctorius azureus

I have yet to get a shot of the Matecho that does it justice. The lights are causing some overexposure and blowing out the faint orange around the eyes. Beautiful frog. I need to get out my good camera! This little guy is living in a temporary home until I get something larger build for him. Obviously, he’s not even half of his full size yet, so I have a little time to work on that. And the good news is, I get to build another tank!

tinctorius matecho

Another attempt at a photo… The point and shoot really can’t handle his colors.

tinctorius matecho

And just for fun, a bad shot of the Varaderos as well. Water on glass makes photography difficult.

Ranitomeya imitator Varadero

How Long Does it Take a Dart Frog Tank to Get Overgrown?

About 30 seconds.

Tradescantia fluminensis wandering jew dart frog tank

Ok, a couple weeks longer than that. This tank was put together 7 weeks ago, and now the tallest terrarium plants have hit the top and are growing sideways. I’m going to trim them in the next day or two and root the trimmings for another tank. This is a pretty good example of how choosing the right terrarium plants for your tank can affect the upkeep necessary.

A lot of these plants are considered common or beginners’ plants, so I’m going to address this post to newer amphibian keepers. Although I’m keeping dart frogs, these plants are suitable for many other amphibians and some reptiles as well.

If you want your tank to fill in quickly, several of the plants I put in this tank may be the right choice for you. These plants will also do well with tree frogs and ground frogs. I’ve kept several of these terrarium plants with Tomato Frogs, Big Eyed Treefrogs (a couple different Leptopelis species), Fire Bellied Toads, and a variety of others, even including Whites Tree Frogs. Whites will crush these plants, so they’re best used as a filler around branches or heavier plants, but they will recover quickly, so they can do well with the larger frogs.

The predominant plant in this tank is Tradescantia fluminensis, commonly referred to as “Wandering Jew”. It’s a very common plant for dart frog keepers, frequently found as a house plant, and considered an invasive species in many parts of the world, including the Southeastern US. As you can see from my tank, if it likes the conditions, it explodes.

Also in this tank are two small ferns (one is visible on the right side of the photo if you look closely), an unidentified Columbian Peperomia, an unidentified small Philodendron, Selaginella kraussiana, Pellionia repens, and Ficus pumila. All of these are great terrarium plants.

Here are some pictures of a few of the plants before they were put in the tank.

philodendron dart frog tank

I always thought this philodendron would get larger as it aged, but so far this is about as big as the leaves get, making it pretty suitable for terrariums. If you have a larger tank, other more common Philodendrons will work too. I have kept some larger Philodendron species in a 55 gallon tank with Whites Tree Frogs, and it worked out pretty well.

small ferns dart frog tank

I imagine these ferns will eventually outgrow the tank, but they grow quite a bit slower than any of the other plants in there. These were purchased at a nursery and carefully treated to remove any chemicals over a few weeks time. Plant nurseries often carry terrarium plants and may have a section dedicated to them, like the one near me has. Keep in mind that these plants may have been treated with chemicals, such as bug spray or fertilizers. Wash them carefully before exposing your frogs to them.

pellionia repens terrarium plant

Pellionia repens is often called “Watermelon plant” or “Watermelon vine”, which is pretty ambiguous. Google “watermelon vine terrarium” and you’ll get a dozen different species on the first half of the first page. This is a good example of why I prefer scientific names (when I can remember them!).

Pellionia repens will take over a tank as well, just not quite as fast as Tradescantia fluminensis (Wandering Jew). This cutting was given to me by a fellow dart frog keeper. You can find vendors who will sell and ship it to you with a quick google search. A similar species, Pellionia daveauana, has been available at Home Depot in my area recently. It will also work, but be aware that it may be treated with chemicals and wash it before use.

peperomia sp columbia pellionia repens terrarium

This Peperomia was collected in Columbia and given to me at a reptile show. It has large leaves, but remains pretty leggy, so even when it takes over (which it will try to do as well), it doesn’t choke the tank up quite as bas as Tradescantia fluminensis. 

Many Peperomia are commonly available. While you may not be able to find this specific type, there are hundreds of Peperomia species, and many are suitable terrarium plants.


Pacific Northwest Moss and Liverworts

Bryophytes have always fascinated me, and growing up in that part of the country Pacific Northwest Moss and Liverworts especially have captured my interest. I’m always a bit horrified when the springtime moss-killing-chemical ads come on the radio at the beginning of every year. This stuff looks better than grass to me!

pacific northwest liverworts step moss

After a recent hike in old growth forests, I felt the urge to find a place where I could collect some native mosses and see if any of them will adapt to the conditions of dart frog tanks. Many native Pacific Northwest mosses require a dormant period each year, so this experiment could be a complete failure. But if the experiment is successful, it could yeild some pretty cool plants for frog tanks.

This is Badge Moss, scientific name Plagiomnium insinge. It appears more “leafy” than the other Pacific Northwest moss I saw, almost like a tiny ground cover vine. It is considered a “true moss”, however, and will develop clusters of 3 to 6 sporophytes at the tips.

badge moss pacific northwestbadge moss step moss sphagnum peat

This is Step Moss, Hylocomium splendens, my favorite out of the bunch. This moss grows world-wide in cooler climates or higher elevations. The name “Step Moss” comes from its growth pattern, where each new year’s growth starts from the middle of the previous year’s frond, forming a new “step” each year. In different parts of the world, the speed of growth and age the plant reaches will vary, but the new step per year is typically true for this part of the world.

washington state step moss washington oregon british columbia alaska moss identification

It’s a bit blurry, but a new frond is starting to grow out of this one.

pacific northwest step moss

Comb Liverwort, scientific name Riccardia multifida, a small-ish liverwort. To the right is another liverwort, even smaller than the Comb Liverwort. I belive this is Yellow-Ladel Liverwort, or Scapania bolanderi.

pacific north west comb liverwortliverwort identification moss washington state

A close up of the Comb Liverwort, complete with hemlock needles and dog hair. Spring is in the air, after all, and by that I mean shedding dog hair!

liverwort up close macro identification

This appears to be Spread-Leaved Peat Moss or Shaggy Sphagnum, scientific name Sphagnum squarrosum. There are several Sphagnum species that look very similar, so I’m not 100% sure on this ID, but best matched the photos in the guide book and online.

Spread Leaved Peat Moss Shaggy  Sphagnum squarrosum

These plants were identified with the help of Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast and the internet.  Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast is a really great book, with entries for every plant I’ve tried to ID so far, including the Pacific Northwest moss and liverwort in this post. I highly recommend it to anyone in the Pacific Northwest. However, if you think I identified any of the plants incorrectly, please let me know!

First Confirmed Male Varadero!

This little guy started calling today! He’s chasing around the fattest frog in the tank. Better pictures to follow. I didn’t want to bug him too much.

male Ranitomeya imitator Varadero

Follow my blog with Bloglovin

Smooth Newt Video

Check out this smooth newt video. Their habitat is really beautiful.

These newts are Lissotriton vulgaris, known as the Common Newt or Smooth Newt. These newts are found in much of Europe. The newts in the video are ready for breeding. The males develop crests for their breeding displays.

smooth newt video

The photographer put his camera in a bottle and lowered it into the water to get this shot. This is a great idea. It reminds me of little viewing boxes I made as a kid, but forgot about until I saw this. I think I might try this on a future field herping expedition.

under water camera

40 Gallon Vivarium Plants Finally!

Finally, some work on the tank! The pump is in place and running. I started by adding some moss. It always looks kinda awkward to me at that stage, but it’s not so bad when I step back and take a look at the whole thing. I can hardly wait for the moss to fill in though. It’ll look MUCH better then. My vivarium plants have been living in small jar terrariums, awaiting this step.


After the moss, I started adding plants.

planted vivarium tank

I have more lights ordered, but for now I just have the one going.

vivarium plants dart frogs

vivarium plants moss vines


Neoregelia “Chiquita Linda” bromiliads on either side of the waterfall where I seeded some Riccia. I need to put some more Riccia in, but my goal is to have the entire background covered in moss and Riccia.

vivarium plants bromiliads

I added some small bits of riccia from the Jewel Orchid terrarium. These contain some small fern gametophyes as well.

terrarium vivarium moss riccia

Neoregelia “Chiquita Linda” bromiliads, Ficus villosa, Syngonium rayii, and fern moss.

bromiliads ficus villosa fern moss terrarium

Oak leaf ficus on the background. The fuzzy Ficus villosa in the foreground.

vivarium oak leaf ficus terrarium

Ficus villosa and Syngonium rayii. The plants are a bit over-exposed, but the Syngonium rayii is a beautiful very dark velvety green.

Ficus villosa Syngonium rayii vivarium plants

I have multiple empty pots still. I have to figure out what to put in them. I think that’s a pretty good reason to order more plants!

neoregelia chiquita linda vivarium plants bromiliads

Neoregelia “Chiquita Linda” bromiliads and fern moss.

Neoregelia Chiquita Linda bromiliads fern moss

This little vine is known as “Manuran’s mystery vine” on Dendroboard. I don’t know what it is, but it’s one of my favorites. A lot of this is new growth since I got it. Most of the leaves it had during shipping have died, but it really took off after that.

Manuran's mystery vine vivarium plants vines moss

Marcgravia rectiflora is a really cool shingling plant. This little cutting should be really impressive once it starts climbing.

Marcgravia rectiflora vivarium plants sphagnum moss

I used pins to hold things in place temporarily.

Marcgravia rectiflora terrarium dart frog

The water feature isn’t quite done. I’m not sure what it needs yet, but I’m not totally happy with it yet. It’s definitely better than before, because I wasn’t able to have the depth I wanted between the two “roots” in the smaller tank. The taller tank gives me a lot more to work with.

vivarium plants water feature moss Marcgravia rectiflora

Live Sphagnum moss and “tropcal moss” from Blue Pumilio.

vivarium plants moss terrarium

Another shot of “Manuran’s mystery vine”. You can kinda see the moss that piggy backed in on it. It’ll be interesting to see how that spreads.

vivarium plants terrarium vines

30 to 40 gallon vivarium background conversion

My 30 gallon tank started leaking, so I had to tear it down. While I was doing that, I remembered I had a larger tank that I know holds water, so I decided to upgrade in size to a 40 gallon tank. In addition to holding water, it’s taller than the 30 gallon, which solves the problem I was having with the water level in the 30 gallon tank being too low.

To get the water level high enough for the pump in the 30 gallon, I would have to add a lot more substrate, which would have covered some of the lower features of this background and take away a lot of height that I wanted to leave for the plants.

To start, I had to figure out where to add to the vivarium background. Instead of adding to one side or the other, I decided to add to the middle since I was already pretty happy with how either end turned out. I chose the place to cut around the features I’d put in already. This spot would have the least affect on the roots.

vivarium background

Thank goodness for my small shop-vac. The styrofoam balls would have been impossible without it!

vivarium background

I fit a new piece of styrofoam into the space.

vivarium background

I used Great Stuff to finish filling in. Note the wax paper behind it. This is excellent for use around Great Stuff if you’re trying to stop it from sticking to things. The wax paper will peal right off when it dries.

I couldn’t decide exactly what I was going for, so I didn’t carve the styrofoam before putting it in place. After everything dried, I carved in the detail, and added more details to other parts of the background. I cut a bunch of little pockets to put substrate in, to give plants more to grow in.

vivarium background

Next, I siliconed the background in place and let it dry for a good long time. When I took apart the 30 gallon, a lot of the silicone was still very soft, despite how long I let it dry. I thought a few days would do the trick, but it wasn’t enough, so this time I’ll leave it for much longer.

vivarium background

I made sure the sides were sealed real well. I don’t want smaller frogs squeezing behind it! In the picture below, you can see one of the smaller pockets I carved for soil for the plants.

vivarium background

The left side was much harder to seal cleanly, so I’ll just clean it up later with a razor blade.

vivarium background

I added some silicone to the waterfall to patch up some spots that didn’t hold up to the water so well. Peat moss doesn’t stick very well.

vivarium background

The added section starts to blend in once it has been carved and covered in silicone.

vivarium background

There is a space under the entire background now. I’ll just fill this in with the substrate layers when I get to that step.

vivarium background

Peices of styrofoam help support the background now to prevent it from sagging while the silicone dries, and to keep the substrate from invading the pump compartment when I get to that stage.

vivarium background

I covered all the silicone in peat moss, but forgot to take a picture of that part. Next time!

2L Jewel Orchid Terrarium

This 2 liter terrarium has been going for a few years now, but has really started taking off recently after putting it under new lights.

I’ve had the jewel orchid forever, and I can’t remember where it came from now. It wasn’t doing very well a few months ago and seemed to be getting eaten by something. After watching closely for a few days, I found a tiny snail that had been eating it. You can see some small brown spots on the leaves that seem to have been caused by the snail. After removing the snail, all the new leaves are perfect.

jewel orchid ricia

Riccia is a liverwort that is usually grown aquatic in tropical aquariums, but it can also grow terrestrially with a little effort. Getting it switched over took a little while, but with the right humidity and enough light, it’s pretty happy.

riccia fern gamephyte

I had a tiny fern in this terrarium, but it slowly died off. There’s only one half dead frond left. I’m pretty sure it wasn’t getting enough light with the old lights. After getting new lights, all of these tiny green things started popping up all over the substrate. I’m pretty sure they’re gametophytes, a stage in the fern life cycle. Basically, fern sprouts.

riccia fern gamephyte

I think I’m going to have to start removing riccia soon to stop it from smothering the young ferns. The timing should be pretty good for the viv I’m working on. Some riccia will work well in the water feature of that tank.

riccia fern gamephyte

I’m not sure how long it’ll take to get to the next stage, but here’s a chart of the life cycle of ferns.

fern life cycle sporangium sporophyte gametophyte

Ranitomeya imitator “Varadero”

New frogs! I’ve wanted these guys for a while, so I’m pretty excited! I got 5 of them. They’re too young to sex yet, but hopefully I’ll get two pairs or find someone nearby to trade with for a pair. With 5 frogs, the odds of getting one pair is 94%, but I’m not sure what the odds of getting two pairs is. I think the odds of two pairs is more like 50-75%.

Species – Ranitomeya imitator “Varadero”
Line/Origin – UE (RI-RPNV)
Age – 4-5 months

ranitomeya imitator varadero

ranitomeya imitator varadero

ranitomeya imitator varadero

ranitomeya imitator varadero

ranitomeya imitator varadero

ranitomeya imitator varadero

ranitomeya imitator varadero